The Balinese cats looks like long-haired Siamese, which is exactly what they are - bred from the original Siamese cats brought to the States. Long-haired kittens were born to the Siamese cats, and eventually an interest arose to breed the long-haired Siamese.
By Dr. Mirjam Kessler, Balinesenzucht of blue Moon, Schweiz [Copyrighted free use], via Wikimedia Commons
The coat of the Balinese is soft and silky. There is no undercoat, and so this single coat lays close to the body, flowing towards the rear. There is no ruff at the neck. The coat is of medium length from half an inch to two inches.
The traditional Balinese tend to have medium long hair all over the body, and the modern Balinese can have quite a short-haired body. This short-haired version of the Balinese was caused by breeding Balinese back to the Siamese cats (acceptable in the breeding program, but causes a change in the coat quaity and length towards short.)
The coat does not get matted or tangled (because of the lack of an undercoat), and a weekly brush should be enough to keep excess hair off your furniture.
The tail of a Balinese is a proud, luxurious plume which tapers to a point- the hair length can be up to five inches
The old type Balinese or Thai cats have much longer coats, ruffs and britches, and had even longer ones in the beginning of the breed development.
By Фотограф:Анна Утехина (dizigner.ru) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
The Balinese has two body types, exactly as the Siamese: the old-style and modern body type. But in both cases the cat has fine boning. The breed is of average size - males weigh 12-16 pounds and females 8-12 pounds.
The cat has long, slim legs with hind legs higher than the front legs. The paws are small, dainty and oval.
By Edison/Azureys Cats (http://azureyscats.com/MeiXiu.html) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Old type, also called "apple head" Balinese is called the Thai Cat these days. This type of cat was used in the early development of the breed and these cats look a lot like the original Balinese cats. They have more robust body, rounder head and smaller ears than the more modern Balinese. The old type Balinese or Thai cats have very few recent ancestors with the modern Balinese.
The modern Balinese has an elongated body - it became fashionable at the same time as the Siamese breeders began to breed a more elongated body shape in the Siamese.
The modern Balinse is svelte, lithe and has long tapering lines. On the other hand it is a strong and muscular cat. Still, probably because of its longer coat, everything about the Balinese appears somewhat "softer".
The apple-head Balinese has a broader head which resembles… well, an apple. This is the original head shape of the breed, and is not caused by mixed breeding with other cat breeds.